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Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, which were discovered in waste-water sludge in the early s, have the unique metabolic ability to. TY – JOUR. T1 – Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application. AU – Kuenen, JG. PY – Y1 – KW – CWTS <= JFIS < M3 - Article. VL - 6. Anammox bacteria oxidize ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as an electron accepter The discovery of anammox process brought revolutionary changes to In order to fulfill practical application of anammox process.

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Nevertheless, oxygen is still required for the production of nitrite by ammonia-oxiding bacteria. Anammox bacteria disguised as denitrifiers: Depending on the exact species, the optimum pH level is 8. Van De Vossenberg et al. A maximum ammonium removal rate of 0. Growth of anammox bacteria using basal medium with L-amino acids. Chemical OceanographyJ. By the s, Arnold Mulder’s observations were just consistent with Richard’s suggestion.

Richards [16] noticed that most of the ammonium that should be produced during the anaerobic remineralization of organic matter was unaccounted for.

Unlike conventional MBR, wastewater circulated in the membrane module, and the biofilms grew on the membrane interior surface.

The gradual construction of full-scale anammox plants increases the availability of anammox sludge. Over 30 full-scale anammox plants are in operation drom the world. As there was no known biological pathway for this transformation, biological anaerobic oxidation of ammonium received little further attention.

Anammox – Wikipedia

Until now, ten anammox species have been described, including seven that are available in laboratory enrichment cultures. Seeding with enriched anammox sludge is more feasible than starting from fdom. While 12 of 20 L-amino acids alanine, arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and valine totally inhibited the growth of anammox bacteria, resulting in the sludge turning from reddish to blackish.

Schematic diagram of the anammox nonwoven membrane reactor ANMR [ 4041 ]. The biological N cycle based in part on Arrigo [ 13 ]. BrocadiaKueneniaAnammoxoglobusJettenia all fresh water speciesand Scalindua marine species.


Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application.

Three decades ago, the existence of two chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms capable appplication oxidizing ammonium to dinitrogen gas was predicted on the basis of thermodynamic calculations [ 7 ]. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation anammox is gacteria novel, autotrophic, and cost-effective alternative to the traditional biological nitrogen removal process [ 5 — 7 ].

The formed hydrazine or imine could thereafter be converted by the enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase to dinitrogen gas, and the reducing equivalents produced in the reaction are required to combine NO or HNO and ammonium or to reduce nitrite to NO.

The start-up nitrite concentration was significantly higher than the published toxic level for anammox bacteria and other lab-scale studies. It was realized that, instead of nitrate, nitrite was assumed as the oxidizing agent of ammonium in anammox reaction.

AppliactionMakarand Madhao Ghangrekar Environmental technology Among different reactors, the anammox nonwoven membrane reactor ANMR is a novel reactor configuration to enrich anammox biomass Figure 5 [ 4041 ].

The formation of compact aggregates was reported to maintain a large amount of active anammox biomass in a reactor [ 55 ].

For the enrichment of the anammox organisms a granular biomass or biofilm system seems to be especially suited in which the necessary sludge age of more than 20 days can be ensured.

The first full scale reactor intended for the application of anammox bacteria was built in the Netherlands in Whether the reduction of nitrite and the oxidation of hydrazine occur at different sites of the same enzyme Figure 3 a or the reactions are catalyzed by different enzyme systems connected via an electron transport chain Figure 3 b remains to be investigated.

The third reactor, part of a plant for the treatment of the effluent of a bacgeria factory, exhibited a largest ammonium load rate. Once nitrite was realized to be the electron acceptor with ammonium as electron donor, a basal medium containing ammonium, nitrite, bicarbonate, minerals, and trace elements was developed for the enrichment of anammox microorganisms [ 46 ].

One is a tannery, the other a potato processing plant.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application.

On the other hand, asparagine, aspartic acid, and histidine slightly decreased bacterial activities. This stands for the start of the commercial application of anammox process, exhibiting to be another milestone.


Introduction Conventional biological nitrogen removal from wastewater usually consists of two steps, nitrification and denitrification. Anammox–growth physiology, cell biology, and metabolism.

Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application

The autotrophic nature of anammox bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria guarantee a low yield and thus less sludge production.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology. On the other hand, the first Asian anammox reactor frlm up in two months, thanks to the availability of anammox seed. View at Google Scholar J. References Publications referenced by this paper. In the same year, the biological nature of anammox was identified [ 21 ]. View at Google Scholar F. Few new genes, such as some known fatty acid biosynthesis and Discovert radical bacteeria genes, containing domains involved in electron transfer and catalysis have been detected.

Along with the implementation of anammox plants, anammox eventually becomes the priority choice for ammonium wastewater treatment. This unpublished study would benefit anammox study and their application.

Experiments which were carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with basal enrichment medium showed that the anaerobic ammonium removal rate increased from original 0.

Init was reported that dinitrogen gas was generated via an unknown mechanism during fermentation in the sediments of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA. The discovery of anammox process was first publicly presented at the 5th European congress on biotechnology [ 19 ].

Environmental genomics analysis of the species Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, through a slightly different and complementary metabolism mechanism, postulated NO to be the intermediate instead of hydroxylamine Figure 4 [ 29 ]. The discovery of the anammox process was first publicly presented at the 5th European congress on biotechnology. Species microdiversity is particularly impressive for the marine representative Scalindua.

The membrane module was installed outside the reactor, which is different from the immerged membrane reactors.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China nos.