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Bil, Senarai Borang. 1. BORANG PERMOHONAN PENDAFTARAN PEMEGANG AMANAH. 2. Seminar Perbandingan Akta Rahsia Rasmi [Akta 88] dan. restricted remote sensing satellite images must be made using Borang ‘ Permohonan satellite image according to the provisions of Akta Rahsia Rasmi ;. BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS♢. JUDUL: SESI PENGAJIAN: / seperti yang termaktub di dalam. AKTA RAHSIA RASMI ).

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Laporan adalah hakmilik Rahsla Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. To my Supervisor, Prof. Madya Abd Rani Othman and my co-supervisor, Dr.

Thank you for your help and taught. It is with deepest serve gratitude of the Al-Mighty that gives me strength and capability to complete this final year project thesis. The special thank goes to my helpful supervisor, Prof. Madya Abd Rani Othman. The supervision and support that he gave truly help the progression and smoothness of this thesis writing.

The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. My grateful thanks also go to my co-supervisor, Dr. A big contribution and hard worked from him during the process is very great indeed. Besides, this project makes me realized the value of hardworking. Great deals appreciated go to the contribution of my faculty – Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Computer Engineering. Last but not least, I would like to thank my friends especially those who study together as student at University Technical Malaysia Malacca as their help throughout completing this project thesis.

The design of this MHz RF transmitter consist of five section altogether. First section is 25 MHz high pass filter, followed by 35 MHz low pass filter.

The direct conversion transmitter produces gain of 22 dBm and bandwidth of 30 MHz. Penghantar isyarat ini direkabentuk daripada lima bahagian. Bahagian pertama adalah penapis isyarat tinggi 25 MHz, diikuti oleh penapis isyarat rendah 35 MHz. Pencampur frekuensi MHz, blok peningkat, dan penguat kuasa juga melengkapkan lagi modul ini.

Semua bahagian dan litar yang terlibat dalam rekabentuk isyarat ini pada dasarnya telah dicadangkan oleh pengeluar. Alatan rekaan bantuan komputer seperti Cadence OrCAD dan perancangan sistem termaju ADS daripada Teknologi Agilent digunakan bagi membantu proses merekabentuk setiap modul di dalam penghantar isyarat ini.

Penghantar isyarat ini menghasilkan keluaran 22 dBm dan lebar jalur 30 MHz. Frequency of High Pass Filter 34 4. Frequency of Low Pass Filter 36 4. Wireless communications systems are greatly expected to play a major role in providing access to future information services. Complexity, power dissipation, cost and the numbers of external components have been the primary criteria in selecting and determining the transceiver architecture itself [1].

As integrated circuit IC technologies evolved, the importance of these criteria changes allowing the approaches that once seemed impractical to be used as a possible solutions.


In the past, most wireless designs have been optimized for either high performance or energy-efficient operation. The narrow bandwidth available to each user also impacts the design of the RF section.

In contrast to the variety of approaches invented in the RF receiver, transmitter architecture is found to be designed in a few forms. This is because the issue such as noise, interference rejection and the band selectivity are more relaxed in transmitters than in receivers. A transmitter may create RF interfere with not only towards other wireless devices, but with many type of non-RF electronic equipment [3].


Harmonics and spurious output wideband and close-in noise, frequency and amplitude stability, and peak including average output powers, are but a few of the critical parameters that must be addressed before any transmitter design can be realized. To designs and develop the MHz transmitter with maximum transmit output power of 25 dBm.

The most important thing for this project is to understand clearly about the transmitter system in radio frequency like the basic and standard operation of the system, the component that been used for the system and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. It also important to know the parameter and characteristic that will affect the APS system.

This project is to build a transmitter that transmits a MHz carrier signal. A direct-conversion approach is used in developing this RF transmitter. A signal bandwidth of 30MHz is inserted to the filter to leave only needed frequency signal.

Then, an up conversion mixer boragn used to converts the signal into MHz RF carrier signal for transmitting. Power amplifier PA and Gain block provide gain to the system. Then the understanding with literature review like survey and project management must be mastered before this project can be realized. The next step involved is in fabrication process. The PCB board layout must be design, assembly and tested precisely so it can work according to the specification.

The final step involved is analyzing the result and conclude the finding if there are any. This thesis is divided into five chapters. Chapter I introduces background, objectives, scope of work, project activity, and company background. In this chapter, some general knowledge about transmitting system will be presented. Chapter II provides the literature review on the Transmitter system. It is about the process, boranng mechanism and the parameters that involved in the systems.

Chapter III describes in detail the methodology used during the project. There are 3 method that been used in rahsa project which are calculation, simulation and measurement. In calculation part, the formula that been used to calculate in the system will be presented.

But, the circuit for simulation part will be shown in chapter Four. For the measurement part, the measurement process will be introduced. Chapter IV discuss about the result and the analysis.

The result will have simulation and measurement data.

The analysis and the comparison for the data will be included in this chapter. Chapter V is about the conclusion for the project. The conclusion will be summarizing about the entire project.

Recommendation for the project will also be included in this chapter. It also has the vision to grow to be a leading force technology company in the marketplace through research, development and innovation in Information and Communication Technology ICT industry. It also has aligned research programs to sustain the strategic theme that covers different technological focused areas.

The research activities conducted beneath division of basic research are mostly correlated to the development of nano and micro sized device for the purpose of electronic and photonic application.

Transmitter characteristic must me mastered out first before any designing can begin. In transmitter structure, there are many things and terms must be understood like transmit output power, gain, insertion loss, return loss, and other terms regarding this project. Here, RF generally refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations, although mechanical RF systems do exist.


Energy in RF current can radiate from a conductor into space as electromagnetic waves or radio waves.

Portal Rasmi Bahagian Hal Ehwal Undang-Undang

This is the foundation of radio technology. Instead of penetrating deeply into electrical conductors, RF current actually flows along their surfaces known as skin effect.

As a result, whilst the human body comes in contact with high power RF currents it caused burns called RF burns. The current can simply ionize air, creating a conductive path through it.

It also flows through paths that contain insulating material, like the dielectric insulator of a capacitor. When circuit are conducted by an ordinary electric cable, RF current has a tendency to reflect from discontinuities in the cable such as connectors and travel back down the cable toward the source and causing state named standing waves, so RF current have to be carried rahsiq particular types of cable called transmission line [6].

S-parameters characterize a linear electrical network by matched loads instead of open or short circuit conditions. These terminations are easier rhasia implement at high signal frequencies and the quantities are measured in power dB [7]. In the circumstance of S-parameters, scattering refers when traveling currents and voltages in a transmission line are affected when they meet up a discontinuity caused by the insertion of a network into the transmission line. Due to the theory of S-parameters that is changed by means of the borqng frequency, the frequency must be specified for any S-parameter measurements declared, in calculation to the characteristic or system impedance.

S-parameters are generally rhasia in matrix form and comply with matrix algebra. By having two ports only in microwave network, that is an input and an output, the S-matrix has four S-parameters, designated like below: S11 S12 S21 S22 These complexes quantities in fact contain eight divided numbers real and imaginary partsor modulus norang phase angle, of each of the complex scattering parameters.

If the output port 2 is terminated, the transmission line is connected to a matched load impedance and rahska rise to none reflections, and produced no input wave on port 2. The input wave on port 1 gives rise to a reflected wave at S And a transmitted wave at port 2 which absorbed in termination on port 2.

The transmitted wave dimension is S Therefore, the sizes of S11 and S21 determine the input power that splits between the potential output paths. Clearly, if 2-port microwave boragn represents a good amplifier, S11 needed are rather small and S21 are quite large. In general, the s-parameters stated much power comes back or out when the. Remember me easmi this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

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